August 2019

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Supercritical water could lead to biomasstofuel conversion on a large scale

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — Converting agricultural waste into vehicle fuel has so far been an enticing yet elusive endeavor, at least on the industrial scale. But recently the Georgia-based company Renmatix has taken steps toward this goal by opening a research and development center in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The company will attempt to produce an efficient and cost-effective method for extracting the sugars from cellulosic biomass, which can consist of wood chips, switchgrass, and other non-edible parts of crops. The sugars can then be converted into motor fuels such as ethanol or feedstock chemicals. This diagram illustrates how Renmatix’s Plantrose Process uses water in its supercritical state to create cellulosic sugar from biomass. Animated version available at renmatix.com. Image credit: Renmatix Citation: Supercritical water could lead to biomass-to-fuel conversion on a large scale (2011, October 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-10-supercritical-biomass-to-fuel-conversion-large-scale.html Enzyme cocktail converts cellulosic materials, water into hydrogen fuel © 2011 PhysOrg.com More information: http://renmatix.comvia: Renmatix press release and The New York Times Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The biggest difference between Renmatix’s technology and that of others is that, while its competitors have tried various combinations of steam, acid and expensive enzymes to convert the biomass into fuel, Renmatix uses compressed hot water. The water is at a pressure and temperature that is so high that the water is in a “supercritical” state of matter. Supercritical water has been previously used in industrial applications including coffee decaffeination and pharmaceutical processes, but not in a biomass-to-fuel process at a significant scale.“The process breaks down a wide range of non-food biomass in seconds, uses no significant consumables and produces much of its own process energy,” the company stated in a press release. “Current methods of breaking down biomass require expensive enzymes or harsh chemicals, and can take up to three days to yield sugars. With its water-based approach, Renmatix is able to provide cellulosic sugar affordably and on large-scale.”At a pilot plant in Kennesaw, Georgia, the company has scaled its process to convert three tons of woody biomass to sugars per day. By locating its newest plant in the greater Philadelphia area, the company hopes to attract potential employees with material science and engineering skills to increase this rate.Among Renmatix’s supporters is board member John Doerr, a partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers who is well known for his early investments in Amazon, Google, Sun Microsystems and other tech companies. Investors are interested because cellulosic biomass technology could potentially provide a cheaper, cleaner source of energy than gasoline, as well as reduce the country’s reliance on oil. More abundant than corn and without the downside of diverting food resources, cellulosic biomass looks promising, as long as it can be scaled up and commercialized. While earlier technologies have proven successful on the small scale, the biggest challenge holding them back has been the difficulty involved in large-scale production at competitive prices.”In the twentieth century, petroleum was the basis for making materials, chemicals and fuels,” said Mike Hamilton, CEO of Renmatix. “In the twenty-first century, sugar is replacing petroleum as the raw material for those industries. Renmatix will provide those sugars faster and cheaper than anyone else.”last_img read more

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Toyota will showcase support robot for homebound

first_img Toyota shows machines to help sick, elderly move Explore further This new entry takes its place in the family of robots under Toyota’s Partner Robot program. Since 2005, Toyota has been doing some serious tinkering on mobility and humanoid robots to accomplish varied tasks. Toyota is keeping a business eye on the fact that the role of personal-service robots is likely to increase as aging populations grow. “Aiming to improve the quality of life, Toyota has developed the HSR prototype in cooperation with the Japan Service Dog Association to identify the needs and desires of individuals with limited limb mobility,” Toyota said in its statement. The company will demonstrate the robot to the public this coming week, from September 26 to 28, at the International Home Care and Rehabilitation Exhibition in Tokyo.The support robot has some way to go before commercialization. Toyota intends to consult nursing professionals and other health experts to develop further robot functions before declaring it market-ready. Citation: Toyota will showcase support robot for homebound (2012, September 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-09-toyota-showcase-robot-homebound.html Toyota tested the HSR prototype making use of feedback from the Yokohama Rehabilitation Service. Last year, residents gave Toyota feedback on the design during in-home trials, where the robot was used to help people with disabilities. As for safety precautions, the designers saw to it that the body’s moving parts do not generate large amounts of force and that movements are slow, to prevent injuries. The robot travels at a maximum speed of 1.8 miles per hour and can climb slopes up to five degrees. The HSR also responds to voice commands. The tablet can be worn on HSR’s head. The resident would in turn talk to other family members or a caregiver via Skype or another voice service. The robot’s telescopic body enables it to pick items from the floor or on top of high counters; the body has heights of 2.7 to 4.3 feet and an arm length of 2.5 feet. It can hold an object that weighs up to 2.6 pounds. www2.toyota.co.jp/jp/news/12/09/nt12_051.htmlkaden.watch.impress.co.jp/docs … 20120921_561409.html Toyota designers considered home nuances that can affect how much of a welcome such a robot would be—small-sized rooms and floor-surface interruptions in crossing over from carpet to hardwood areas. HSR can overcome bumps in the floor up to 0.3 inches, which is said to be enough to cross from a wood to carpeted floor. When not in use, the robot’s single arm can fold tightly to reduce its overall body diameter to 14.5 inches, to accommodate small-sized rooms. More information: (Phys.org)—Toyota has unveiled a new single-arm robot to assist homebound residents with limited mobility. The 70-pound robot’s arm has a two-fingered gripper and telescopic body to complete fundamental house tasks that would otherwise be impossible for the patient to complete. The Toyota prototype is called the HSR, which stands for Human Support Robot, to help those with limited arm and limb movements. The company announced HSR’s debut on Sept. 21. HSR goes to work to fetch items, open curtains, and pick up items from the floor or on top of tables and high counters. The Toyota robot can be controlled using a graphical user interface via tablet PC. © 2012 Phys.org Credit: Toyota This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Quantum teleportation performed with light from a quantum dot embedded in an

first_img More information: J. Nilsson, et al. “Quantum teleportation using a light-emitting diode.” Nature Photonics. DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2013.10 (Phys.org) —In a new study, physicists have teleported photonic qubits made of pairs of entangled photons that are generated by an LED containing an embedded quantum dot. The novel set-up has advantages compared to the conventional method of generating entangled photons using a laser, and could lead to a simplified technique for implementing quantum teleportation in quantum information applications. Experimental set-up of the quantum teleportation device including an entangled light-emitting diode (ELED) and an assortment of beam splitters polarization controllers, detectors, and photodiodes. The researchers demonstrated that the device can generate single pairs of entangled photons with advantages compared with using a laser due to the electrical control provided by the ELED. Credit: J. Nilsson, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Citation: Quantum teleportation performed with light from a quantum dot embedded in an LED (2013, March 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-quantum-teleportation-dot-embedded.html Journal information: Nature Photonics “We can also produce entangled photon pairs by pumping a non-linear crystal with a laser,” coauthor Andrew Shields at Toshiba Research Europe Limited told Phys.org. “Although this has facilitated many experiments in quantum optics in the past, it has the disadvantage that the process sometimes produces two (or more) pairs. These multiple pairs cause errors in quantum information processing schemes that become increasingly problematic as we scale to larger numbers of photons. Thus developing true quantum light sources (i.e., one that produces just one entangled pair at a time) is seen as essential to achieving useful applications in quantum communications and photonic quantum computing.”As an alternative, the researchers here created an entangled-light-emitting diode (ELED) with an indium arsenide quantum dot to generate pairs of entangled photons one at a time. Using the ELEDs, the researchers demonstrated an average teleportation fidelity that exceeds the maximum that can be achieved using only classical correlations, proving the quantum nature of the teleportation. A key difference with this set-up compared with laser-based set-ups is that here the photons are generated electrically rather than optically. One benefit of electric generation is that the emission wavelength of the quantum dot can be easily tuned using electric fields, which could make it compatible with a wide range of input photons of different wavelengths.”It is actually quite straightforward to embed a quantum dot in an LED,” Shields said. “The quantum dot is formed by a self-organizing method during the growth of the semiconductor layers. The quantum dot is comprised of indium arsenide, which has a larger lattice constant than the gallium arsenide substrate. This results in a very thin layer (about 2 monolayers thick) self-assembling into quantum dots. After growing the rest of semiconductor structure, we are left with a layer of quantum dots embedded inside the LED.”The researchers hope that the ability of the ELEDs to generate single pairs of entangled photons, along with future improvements in light collection efficiency and entanglement fidelity, will lead to the realization of a variety of teleportation-based quantum information applications.”Quantum teleportation is an important primitive in quantum information processing,” Shields said. “We are planning to apply it to quantum communications and deterministic photonic quantum logic gates.” Explore further Copyright 2013 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Phys.org. A new ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs The researchers, J. Nilsson, et al., at Toshiba Research Europe Limited and the University of Cambridge, both in Cambridge, UK, have published their paper on demonstrating quantum teleportation using an LED in a recent issue of Nature Photonics.As the scientists explain, quantum teleportation—a process in which quantum information is destroyed so that it may be transferred simultaneously to another location—has been proposed as a way to create quantum communication networks and quantum computing protocols despite the no-cloning theorem. According to the no-cloning theorem, quantum information cannot be copied. Although no-cloning enables quantum cryptography to have a high degree of security, it also limits the options to create quantum communication networks and increases the losses in quantum computing due to imperfect measurements. Teleporting the information may offer a solution for these two areas. In quantum communication networks, teleportation can establish a quantum channel between two nodes. In quantum computing, teleportation can transfer qubits from successful logic operations, while the other qubits can be thrown out. Although quantum teleportation can be implemented with different systems, the researchers here argue that photonic qubits are best suited for the largest number of applications.One of the most important parts of the photonic teleportation process is having a light source that produces single pairs of entangled photons. Although lasers can be used to generate the photons, they involve practical complexities and sometimes generate multiple photon pairs, and these problems have inhibited their use in quantum information technologies. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Stingrays found to chew their food before swallowing

first_img Up till now, scientists have assumed that mammals are the only creatures that chew their food before they swallow it—but this, the researchers note, depends in part on how you define chewing. Birds, they note, have a gizzard for grinding up food, though technically it is not chewing in the usual sense, though similar. In this new effort, the research team has found that the ocellate river stingray, which lives in the Amazon River, chews its food in very human-like ways.Intrigued when they learned that the stingrays often eat prey that would seem to require chewing such as insects and mollusks, the team obtained several samples of them for study in their lab. They placed them in a tank with a see-through glass bottom, as the stingray mouth is on its underside. The researchers then filmed them as they captured three kinds of food—soft, medium and hard—chewed it, and then swallowed it. More specifically, they found that the stingrays first grabbed their prey after pulling it in using suction they created by undulating their bodies, and then moved the left and right parts of their jaws back and forth to create multiple angles for biting and tearing. They found that the stingrays also moved their lower and upper jaws independently. Taken together, the chewing action very much resembles human and other mammal mastication. To make sure that the jaw actions were what they seemed, the researchers also performed CT scans on the stingrays and found that the chewing action worked in concert with small teeth.The finding by the team suggests that chewing by humans and other animals is not nearly as unique as has been thought—they plan to study other stingray species to see if they too chew their food. © 2016 Phys.org Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Stingrays found to chew their food before swallowing (2016, September 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-09-stingrays-food-swallowing.htmlcenter_img Explore further Tiny soft robot stingray propelled by rat heart cells is guided by light More information: Always chew your food: freshwater stingrays use mastication to process tough insect prey, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Published 14 September 2016. rspb.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098/rspb.2016.1392AbstractChewing, characterized by shearing jaw motions and high-crowned molar teeth, is considered an evolutionary innovation that spurred dietary diversification and evolutionary radiation of mammals. Complex prey-processing behaviours have been thought to be lacking in fishes and other vertebrates, despite the fact that many of these animals feed on tough prey, like insects or even grasses. We investigated prey capture and processing in the insect-feeding freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro using high-speed videography. We find that Potamotrygon motoro uses asymmetrical motion of the jaws, effectively chewing, to dismantle insect prey. However, CT scanning suggests that this species has simple teeth. These findings suggest that in contrast to mammalian chewing, asymmetrical jaw action is sufficient for mastication in other vertebrates. We also determined that prey capture in these rays occurs through rapid uplift of the pectoral fins, sucking prey beneath the ray’s body, thereby dissociating the jaws from a prey capture role. We suggest that the decoupling of prey capture and processing facilitated the evolution of a highly kinetic feeding apparatus in batoid fishes, giving these animals an ability to consume a wide variety of prey, including molluscs, fishes, aquatic insect larvae and crustaceans. We propose Potamotrygon as a model system for understanding evolutionary convergence of prey processing and chewing in vertebrates. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from the University of Toronto and the University of Washington has discovered that at least one species of stingray chews its food before swallowing it. In their paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the team describes their study of the creatures using high-speed video technology and what they learned about the platter-shaped predators.last_img read more

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Its all in the details

first_imgDay 3 at Wills Lifestyle Fashion Week (WIFW) 2014 saw some incredible detailing on the ramp.Alongside solid colours that seem to be the norm of most of the Autumn Winter collections seen this year, the magic was in the patterns, embroideries and the delectable use of fabric. Gold  also seems to be a hot favourite with most designers at this edition of WIFW.The day opened with Pia Pauro and Urvashi Kaur making way for Akaaro by Gaurav Jai Gupta, Paromita Bannerjee, Archana Rao, Dev r Nil, Rishta by Arjun Saluja, Payal Pratap, Sanchita, Masaba Gupta for Satya Paul and finally Abraham & Thakore.We loved the shades of khaki that Abraham & Thakore unleashed in their collection, changing the game of sleek city dressing in style.last_img read more

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Rush of life

first_img‘Art not only imitates nature, but also completes its deficiencies,’ says Aristotle and taking that idea forward, a gallery in the Capital is providing art lovers quite a treat because Sarath KS’s artwork claims to completely justifies this famous quote. The artist’s solo show is on at the Art Spice Gallery. This exhibition will display around 30 (oil works) artworks of various sizes and created by Sarath between 2007 and 2014.Sarath is very much inspired by nature and ordinary people, their lives, their aspirations and thoughts. People like us can draw inspiration from his paintings and we can easily relate with his artwork. He’s very particular about his work. He makes a proper plan before starting any large artwork, even the preliminary sketch is done only after planning. For small artworks, he goes step by step rather than constructing the entire idea. Initially, a single image is created and then other objects are created. And finally the relation between the two is established. Sarath gives a lot of emphasis to opposites and paradoxes. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Sarath has introduced two new forms of art – Two Way Art and Sound Art. The Two way Art:  It is a new form of art in which two different ideas are shown together by changing the arrangement or alignment of work. Sound Art is still lying at a development stage. It is based on the concept of introducing sounds to change the subject of painting in a way. It is contrary to the Two Way Art.He has also designed products and ads for print media. Though he’s currently working as a civil engineer in a private firm yet his passion for art and creativity is taking him to new levels of fame and popularity.It is not every day you get a chance to see and feel such work of art which will transform your figments of imagination onto canvas. Head over and enjoy this feast for your eyes and leave with a memory for a lifetime. WHERE: Art Spice GalleryWHEN: On till 27 May, 11 am to 7 pmlast_img read more

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When it comes to love dont lie

first_imgWe are lovers since school days. Now, we are 23 years old. Suddenly I find my girlfriend ignoring me and I am sure she’s involved with a very rich guy who she met at a disco! What should I do?Name not givenLove can’t happen one way, it has to be reciprocative. If suddenly she is not responding to you or has changed after she met a new guy then might be that she never loved you. It was a phase and it has faded! Grow up and be a man ! Don’t force love, it just happens. If possible speak with her and get a clear picture, if she is not even ready to speak with you then it is not worth the effort. In life it is very important to find the person who will hold your hand in all weather. If the love is true, it will be for you. Don’t be upset. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’I love a girl, she also loves me very much,we can’t live without each other, but I am poor compared to their family. Her parents are willing to get her married in next two years. Last year I even tried committing suicide. If she gets married to some  other  person I will die. What should I do in this situation?Tarang Singh, HaryanaFirst of all, HAVE GUTS TO LIVE. If you are ready to die if she doesn’t become a part of your life then probably you don’t deserve her! Do you have parents at home, brother and other people who love you? Think about them before you do any foolish act. I am not interested in giving you a solution because you are not worth it at this point of time and you are not ready for it. First love yourself and your life that is GIFT given by your parents & God to you, then think of loving somebody else. Committing suicide or even the attempt is an act of the weak. Love should make you stronger and happier. Contact me once you become strong, start loving yourself and ready to face anything and everything in life boldly. Shape up your life and career first. The rest can wait. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixI’m a 20yr old girl. I was in a relationship for a year which was a long distance relation (another state). We both are of same caste and I was really very happy with him and could see him as my life partner. But with time he started to be busy and ignorant. He hardly replied to my messages and calls, it made me very sad. I asked him, he never gave a proper reason. I expressed my anger rudely but I want him back. Please help me.Juhi, New DelhiIf you opt for a long distance relationship, then be prepared for such situations. First of all try to give him space, he might be really busy. I think its your possessiveness, that is creating an issue. Its absolutely ok to be possessive but the problem starts when you start having negative feelings along with being possessive. You might be probably thinking that he is involved with somebody else, and this might be making you insecure. Don’t chase him and stop giving him too much importance. Trust your partner completely, if he is yours he will be yours. And for the anger you expressed, it is normal. Apologize for your deed and try not to contact him for few days. Love yourself girl, you will automatically love everything around you.Have a love or life query  you cannot find an answer to?  Send your questions to –  [email protected]last_img read more

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Kaleidoscope of paintings

first_imgArt lovers, here’s a wakeup call. A show embodying works of  Asit Kumar Patnaik, Bharat Bhushan Singh, Farhad Hussain, KS Radhakrishnan, Ramesh Gorjala, Satish Gujral, Shipra Bhattacharya, Surya Prakash, Thota Vaikuntam and many more such artists is happening in your town! The viewer can figure out his or her own preferences with a wide variety of choice like this. Works of artists are strongly representative of the world of Indian art, not borrowing from beyond the shores. The show is a statement of the evolving taste in Indian Art. Unlike fashion, art does not get outdated and we find a lot of artists continuing their previous styles. The show is an opportunity for a viewer to select from paintings, sculptures & photography. There is a mix of figurative & abstract art works with a surrealistic feel, and the other’s inspired by tribal & folk art. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Modern & contemporary art, carefully selected for the display, expresses the depth of feeling of the artist as an individual in the modern world.  And every individual then has his or her own choice of language of visual expression to communicate aesthetic principles.  And in a sense, it also reflects an insight into the taste of the time when the work was conceptualized.Unlike an orchestra, the viewer is free to choose the instrument he or she wishes to concentrate on and savour, for it is colours, forms and textures that make up this harmony. Where: Chawla Art Gallery, Ground Floor, Square One Mall, Saket When: on till 20 June 2014; 11.00 am till 8.00 pmlast_img read more